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Currently commonly used planar grinding and polishing methods

At present, the commonly used planar grinding and polishing methods are as follows:

1.1 Mechanical polishing Mechanical polishing is a polishing method that removes the polished convex portion by plastic deformation on the surface of the material to obtain a smooth surface. Generally, oil stone strips, wool wheels, sandpaper, etc. are used, and manual operations are mainly used, and special parts such as a rotary body are used. For the surface, an auxiliary tool such as a turntable can be used, and a method of super-fine polishing can be used with a high surface quality requirement. Ultra-fine grinding and polishing is a special-purpose grinding tool. In the polishing liquid containing abrasive, it is pressed against the machined surface to perform high-speed rotary motion. With this technology, a surface roughness of Ra0.008 μm can be achieved, which is high in various polishing methods. This method is often used in optical lens molds.

1.2 Chemical polishing Chemical polishing is to make the material in the chemical medium microscopically convex part of the concave portion preferentially dissolve, so as to obtain a smooth surface. The main advantage of this method is that it can polish a workpiece with complex shapes without complicated equipment, and can polish many workpieces at the same time with high efficiency. The core issue of chemical polishing is the formulation of the polishing fluid. The surface roughness obtained by chemical polishing is generally several 10 μm.

1.3 The basic principle of electropolishing electropolishing is the same as chemical polishing, that is, the surface of the material is selectively fused to make the surface smooth. Compared with chemical polishing, the effect of the cathode reaction can be eliminated, and the effect is better.

The electrochemical polishing process is divided into two steps:

(1) Macroscopically leveling the dissolved product to diffuse into the electrolyte, and the surface roughness of the material is reduced, Ra>1 μm.

(2) Low-light leveling anodic polarization, surface brightness is improved, Ra<1μm.

1.4 Ultrasonic polishing The workpiece is placed in the abrasive suspension and placed together in the ultrasonic field. The ultrasonic vibration is applied to grind and polish the surface of the workpiece. Ultrasonic machining has a small macroscopic force and does not cause deformation of the workpiece, but it is difficult to manufacture and install the tooling. Ultrasonic processing can be combined with chemical or electrochemical methods. On the basis of solution corrosion and electrolysis, ultrasonic vibration is applied to stir the solution to dissociate the dissolved products on the surface of the workpiece, and the corrosion or electrolyte near the surface is uniform. The cavitation of the ultrasonic wave in the liquid can also inhibit the corrosion process and facilitate surface illuminating.

1.5 Fluid polishing Fluid polishing relies on high-speed flowing liquid and abrasive particles carried by it to wash the surface of the workpiece for polishing. Common methods include: abrasive jet processing, liquid jet processing, hydrodynamic grinding, and the like. Fluid-powered grinding is driven by pneumatic data hydraulically, allowing the liquid medium carrying abrasive particles to flow back and forth across the surface of the workpiece at high speed. The medium is mainly made of a special compound (polymeric substance) that flows under low pressure and is mixed with abrasive. Made of abrasive, silicon carbide powder can be used.

1.6 Magnetic Abrasive Polishing Magnetic grinding and polishing is the use of magnetic abrasive to form an abrasive brush under the action of a magnetic field to grind the workpiece. This method has high processing efficiency, good quality, easy control of processing conditions and good working conditions. With a suitable abrasive, the surface roughness can reach Ra 0.1 μm.

2 basic methods of mechanical polishing

The polishing described in plastic mold processing is very different from the surface polishing required in other industries. Strictly speaking, the polishing of the mold should be called mirror processing. Not only does it have high requirements for polishing itself, but it also has a high standard for surface flatness, smoothness and geometric accuracy. Surface polishing generally requires only a shiny surface. The standard of mirror processing is divided into four levels: AO=Ra0.008μm, A1=Ra0.016μm, A3=Ra0.032μm, A4=Ra0.063μm. It is difficult to accurately control the geometric accuracy of parts due to electropolishing, fluid polishing and other methods. However, the surface quality of chemical polishing, ultrasonic polishing, magnetic polishing and other methods does not meet the requirements, so the mirror processing of precision molds is mainly based on mechanical polishing.

2.1 Basic procedures for mechanical polishing In order to obtain high-quality polishing results, it is important to have polishing tools and auxiliary materials such as high-quality oil stone, sandpaper and diamond abrasive paste. The choice of polishing procedure depends on the surface condition after the previous processing, such as machining, EDM, grinding, etc.

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Shandong Jining Qingfeng Machinery Hardware Co.,Ltd

Address: NO.47 Jinyu Road, Jining, Shandong

Tel: +86-537-3281595

Fax: +86-537-3281597

E-mail: info@qfmh.com

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